Central Asia is a very important region laying at a strategically important intersection between the two continents. Its importance continually increases due to the EU Enlargement and a creation of the European Neighbourhood Policy. The Central Asian States (Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) have experienced considerable evolution in political and economic transformation since attaining independence. They have established statehood, safeguarded multi-ethnic understanding and inter-religious communication. The newly gained independence also brought along new challenges. The region, due to its geographical location, continues to be targeted or transited by criminals, professional human smugglers and traffickers, drug traffickers and others. Also, economic stagnation in some countries of the region combined with strong economic growth in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan have led to an increase of seasonal or permanent labour migration. Many migrants have no legal status and there is a need for a more intensive dialogue and closer cooperation between sending and receiving countries to create a framework that will establish realistic, enforceable rules and balance the interests of migrants and receiving countries.
In May 1993, the
Since its creation, IOM has been working in the
The current political, economic, and social situation in the
As a result, the large-scale and spontaneous out migration of the Kyrgyz population has become acute. The majority of labour migrants are those engaged in individual entrepreneurship and in “shuttling” – regular or occasional travel for the purpose of selling goods. Seasonal migration is also widespread, mainly for agricultural and construction jobs.
IOM also develops projects in the area of good governance with a focus on anti-corruption and transparency in dealing with migration for development.
IOM continues to assist the government in developing and implementing strong and sustainable migration policies, improved legislation and appropriate administrative structures. IOM aims to support the government in its efforts to promote regular and reduce irregular migration and human trafficking. IOM provides expertise in regulating migration flows, and in capacitating the migration management in all migration issues.
Two years after independence from the former
Throughout the Tajik civil war that lead to the displacement of over 700,000 persons,
Every year, a considerable percentage of the population migrates to find jobs abroad due to the country's poor, rural and landlocked economy and its young and mobile population. In 2008 the number reached a new record, in all likelihood over one million, or at least half of the country’s labour force. Their remittances exceeded $2 billion, almost half of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). The irregular nature of this migration subjects people to discrimination, exploitation and trafficking.
The combination of these factors suggest that equitable well-being and sustainable development in Tajikistan will depend on the government's ability to foster regular, humane and secure movement of human and trade resources in and out of the country. There is still a strong need of capacity building of migration authorities, continued analysis of migration challenges through research, publications and debates, increased awareness of migrants, and leveraging of good migration management.