Support to the migration management in the Republic of Moldova (2004)

Donor: Ministry of Interior, Department of Asylum and Migration Policies within Programme of Czech Development Cooperation

Implementation period: 2004

Implementing Agency: IOM Prague in cooperation with IOM Chisinau

The project was designed to enhance control over the illegal movement of migrants to and through the territory of Moldova towards Europe while at the same time creating a modern migration management system facilitating the flow of legal migration. The project aimed to improve border and migration management through the development of framework, operational, a capacity building measures with a specific emphasis to enhanced control of illegal migration. Project activities thus included several types of trainings and seminars with Czech experts who shared their experience and knowledge with Moldavian colleagues. Czech Republic also provided Moldova with identified technical presentation equipment donated to Moldovan Border Guards Service at the border crossing in Ungheni.

Migratory background in Moldova:

Due to its geographical position and difficult socio-economic situation, trafficking and irregular migration continue to pose major problems for Moldova. Human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for forced prostitution towards western Europe, the Balkans, the Middle East and other regions, is one of the key aspect in the Moldavian policy. At the same time, Moldova is considered the country of transit. Illegal migrants from the Southern, and Eastern Asia (mainly from China), Eastern Europe, and the state of the former Soviet Union (Central Asia and the Middle East) are crossing Moldova to reach Europe. This critical situation needs an active approach from the Moldavian governmental institutions.

In addition to the migrants transiting through the Moldavian territory, the other problem is in mass emigration of the Moldavian citizens. Moldova is currently experiencing “the migration boom”. More and more people are trying to leave the country in order to find a job abroad, increasingly more women become the victims of the human trafficking. The population of Moldova is about 4,5 millions inhabitants. Minimum of 500 thousands inhabitants live abroad, most of them work illegally. More than half work in one of the Eastern European states or in Russia. About one third from the remaining 250 thousands lives in Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece), one third in Central Europe and the rest in Israel. Demographic situation is worsening the situation on Moldavian labor market, and the whole socio-economical reality. Moldova is considered the poorest country in Europe.

Labour migration towards the Eastern Europe, the Central Asia and mainly to the Russian federation is likely to continue in following years. Such development, yet in slower scale, can be expected also in other countries. The main destination countries are still going to be Israel and the Central and Eastern Europe with Russian communities or with the Moldavian diaspora. Labour migration towards the Western European countries concerns especially young and educated population with university degrees.

Moldova has still difficulties with combating the above mentioned phenomena. Its capacities, be it organizational, personal or technical capacities are very limited. There is no great support in legislation, which has been only slowly created; its implementation will be probably problematic as well. The creation of central migration management is only in its first stage and its creation is a long-term process, which is financially demanding. The project of Foreign Development Aid will thus support Moldova migration management not only via the expertise of Czech migration experts, yet also financially, through technical equipment purchased for the Moldova Border Guards.